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  • All syllabus Civil Engineering Mock tests - 59
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  1. Soil Mechanics is a discipline of Civil Engineering involving the study of soil, its behavior, and application as an engineering material.
  2. Engineers are concerned with soil’s mechanical properties: permeability, stiffness, and strength. These depend primarily on the nature of the soil grains, the current stress, the water content, and unit weight.
  3. Igneous rocks: formed from crystalline bodies of cooled magma.
  4. Sedimentary rocks: formed from layers of cemented sediments.
  5. Metamorphic rocks: formed by the alteration of existing rocks due to heat from igneous intrusions or pressure due to crustal movement.
  6. Soils are formed from materials that have resulted from the disintegration of rocks by various processes of physical and chemical weathering.
    • Breakdown of parent rock: weathering, decomposition, erosion.
    • Transportation to the site of final deposition: gravity, flowing water, ice, wind.
    • The environment of final deposition: flood plain, river terrace, glacial moraine, lacustrine or marine.
    • Subsequent conditions of loading and drainage: little or no surcharge, heavy surcharge due to ice or overlying deposits, change from saline to freshwater, leaching, contamination.
  1. Physical weathering reduces the size of the parent rock material, without any change in the original composition of the parent rock. The main processes involved are exfoliation, unloading, erosion, freezing, and thawing. The principal cause is climatic change.
  2. Chemical weathering not only breaks up the material into smaller particles but alters the nature of the original parent rock itself. The main processes responsible are hydration, oxidation, and carbonation.
  3. Transportation agencies can be combinations of gravity, flowing water or air, and moving ice. In water or air, the grains become sub-rounded or rounded, and the grain sizes get sorted so as to form poorly-graded deposits. In moving ice, grinding and crushing occur, size distribution becomes wider forming well-graded deposits.
  4. Residual soils are found at the same location where they have been formed. Generally, the depth of residual soils varies from 5 to 20 m.
  5. Transported Soils: Weathered rock materials can be moved from their original site to new locations by one or more of the transportation agencies to form transported soils.
  6. Soils that are carried and deposited by rivers are called alluvial deposits.
  7. Soils that are deposited by flowing water or surface runoff while entering a lake are called lacustrine deposits. Alternate layers are formed in different seasons depending on the flow rate.
  8. If the deposits are made by rivers in seawater, they are called marine deposits. Marine deposits contain both particulate material brought from the shore as well as organic remnants of marine life forms.
  9. The melting of a glacier causes the deposition of all the materials scoured by it leading to the formation of glacial deposits.
  10. Soil particles carried by wind and subsequently deposited are known as aeolian deposits.
  11. Total volume, V = Vs + Vw + Vv
  12. Void ratio (e)is the ratio of the volume of voids (Vv) to the volume of soil solids (Vs), and is expressed as a decimal. e=Vv/Vs
  13. Porosity (n) is the ratio of the volume of voids to the total volume of soil (V ), and is expressed as a percentage.  n=(Vv/V)x100
  14. Void ratio and porosity are inter-related to each other as follows:
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