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[Capsule] Formation of Soils & Soil Types | Civil Engineering Capsule for SSC, ESE, GATE, AE/AEE for any Govt. CE Job Preparations.

Topic: Formation of Soils & Soil Types:

  • Soil Mechanics is a discipline of Civil Engineering involving the study of soil, its behaviour and application as an engineering material
  • Igneous rocks: formed from crystalline bodies of cooled magma.
  • Sedimentary rocks: formed from layers of cemented sediments.
  • Metamorphic rocks: formed by the alteration of existing rocks due to heat from igneous intrusions or pressure due to crustal movement.
  • Physical weathering reduces the size of the parent rock material, without any change in the original composition of the parent rock
  • The main processes of Physical weathering involved are exfoliation, unloading, erosion, freezing, and thawing
  • Chemical weathering not only breaks up the material into smaller particles but alters the nature of the original parent rock itself
  • The effects of weathering and transportation mainly determine the basic nature of the soil (size, shape, composition and distribution of the particles).

  • The main processes of Chemical weathering is responsible are hydration, oxidation, and carbonation
  • Residual soils are found at the same location where they have been formed. Generally, the depth of residual soils varies from 5 to 20 m
  • Chemical weathering rate is greater in warm, humid regions than in cold, dry regions causing a faster breakdown of rocks
  • Weathered rock materials can be moved from their original site to new locations by one or more of the transportation agencies to form transported soils
  • Soils that are carried and deposited by rivers are called alluvial deposits.
  • Soils that are deposited by flowing water or surface runoff while entering a lake are called lacustrine deposits. Atlernate layers are formed in different seasons depending on flow rate.
  • If the deposits are made by rivers in sea water, they are called marine deposits. Marine deposits contain both particulate material brought from the shore as well as organic remnants of marine life forms.
  • Melting of a glacier causes the deposition of all the materials scoured by it leading to formation of glacial deposits.
  • Soil particles carried by wind and subsequently deposited are known as aeolian deposits.


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